Sunday, June 28, 2020
Doing Business with China (Coursework Sample) Content: Business with China StudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s name: School Affiliation: From time to time, almost everybody encounters an ethical issue that has to be addressed. Ethical dilemmas result from moral principles and values held by individuals. Intriguingly, what is ethically unacceptable to one individual could be acceptable to another. Further, the situation is made complex by differing theories and models of ethics. While some theories hold that only what is good ought to be done, others state that anything profitable to the majority of people ought to be embraced at all cost. For instance, the case being analyzed in this paper entails ethical issues relating to abortion. The organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s motive is continuing offering the much-needed care to the residents of the said province. To do so, abortion operations that are legal could play an integral role in the continuity of the project. Conversely, such an undertaking would mean that the manager would have to allow the firm to proceed with the proposal. This paper analyzes this scenario from different ethical perspectives. Utilitarian perspective Utilitarianism theory is often termed as consequentialism as it focuses on the culmination of a particular decision whenever faced with a moral issue. In short, this approach seldom focuses on the exact action one takes; instead it places emphasis on the eventual results. As long as the results will maximize the benefits, then the theory argues that the morality of an action thus irrelevant (Gandjour, 2007). Though often criticized for seemingly failing to address the cases where innocent people might suffer, the proponents of the theory argue that it tends to benefit a majority of the people. In light of this understanding, a person applying utilitarian theory would go ahead and implement the plan. The reason for the assertion is that by undertaking this project, the clinics would no longer rely on other Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Additionally, the residents of this province would no longer be turned away for lack of medicines in the facility. The recent deaths resulting from curable diseases would cease. Most importantly, the facilities would achieve its core objective: offering health services to all the residents of this Chinese province. In other words, a utilitarian would approve the plan as it is since it will benefit more people than the number it will hurt. Contrary to the popular belief that utilitarianism disregards morality it indeed does but from a different perspective. To a utilitarian, an action is wrong if the resulting consequences do not benefit a large number of people(Jones, 2015). However, analyzing this Chinese case, a utilitarian would never have a problem with the implementation of this proposal. If the plan does not cater for the large community, a utilitarian will hesitate to implement. However, for this case it is different, and that is why the implementation would not be hesitated upon. Deontologist In contrast, a person applying deontology theory Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"defined first a German philosopher, Immanuel Kant- would seldom approve or implement the proposal to allow abortion operations in this village. The word Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"deontologyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ was coined from the Greek term Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"DeonÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ which means duty. Thus, this theory is often called duty-based as it compels an individual to do the right thing as a duty. While utilitarianism seeks to maximize the outcome irrespective of the actions, Deontology argues based on the morality of the action regardless of the outcome (Dougherty, 2011). That is to say, a deontologist would oppose an action deemed as wrong even if the benefits are higher. Often, deontology is concerned with moral absolutism whereby the argument is that one ought to do the right thing always regardless of the outcome. Consequently, given this situation a deontologist would neither approve nor recommend the proposal. First, the organization aims at offering abortion-related services to middle-class women in the area. Though the action itself is legally acceptable, a deontologist would have reservations based on the morality of the action. It is worth pointing that deontology does not necessarily approve something just because it is legally acceptable. Instead, the connection of the situation with the preceding morals determines the action to take. For instance, in this case, a deontologist would argue that the women are not conceiving accidentally. Rather, it is on purpose thus morally unacceptable for abortion to proceed. Despite the high number of patients that will benefit from the proposal, a deontologist will not approve the plan nevertheless. However, a deontologist would still accept this proposal especially when they do not hold the notion of moral absolutism. As indicated, this kind of stance argues that neither the motive nor the consequences of an action can justify an action taken. Non-absolutists concede that some actions might be justifiable based on the motive of the person taking it. For instance, if a gang demands that one reveals the whereabouts of a possible victim lying would be acceptable. In this Chinese village case, even a non-absolutist deontologist would not approve the plan. The reason for this assertion is that the decision of abortion by the women is not under duress or a result of coercion. Virtue perspective In the deontologist, as already explained, a decision maker will stick to that which is universally known to be right. A deontologist views doing the right thing as a duty that one has to adhere to at all times irrespective of the eventual results. Conversely, a utilitarian views something as wrong only when the culmination is negative. That is to say, if the consequences will be positive, the morality of an action is somewhat irrelevant. However, in the case of virtue perspective, a decision maker will be guided solely by their virtues. In the event of deontologist, their focus will be on the agreed ethics and that which is right. For a utilitarian, a decision will be made as per the eventual result. A virtue ethicist, instead, tends to ignore both of these approaches and make a decision based on own established virtues. Typically, virtue ethics has three main strands including eudemonism, ethics of care and agent-based theories. The term Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"eudemonismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ is interpreted to mean Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"well-beingÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"happinessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, and virtue ethicists argue that it is the primary goal of life. Further, it is argued that this could be achieved by regularly practicing Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"areteÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ or merely virtues (Birsch, 2011). Whenever faced with a dilemma, virtue ethicists state that one ought to engage Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"phronesisÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, or simply practical wisdom gained with time. Ethics of care emphasizes the need for community, relationship and solidarity as opposed universal standards. Therefore, a virtue ethicist makes a decision based on their inner convictions but is likely to avoid implementing the plan. It is imperative to realize that though a virtue ethicist might steer clear of applying the program this decision would be influenced by consequences or the morality. Instead, the reluctance would emanate from the individually developed virtues and values. It, therefore, means that a virtue ethicist is likely to make a decision that could often lean toward consequentialists and at other times toward deontologists. In essence, a person facing this dilemma will make a decision based on their level of morality. The reason is that it takes time for a moral character to be established; thus some decisions might be made differently. However, upon establishment, a virtue ethicist will be consistent with their decisions (Birsch, 2011). Rights and justice perspective In the rights and justice theory, a decision is made as per the rules set forth by the majority. It is argued that because rights are endorsed by the majority of people in the society, the adherence is a requirement whenever making a decision. Unlike the other three perspectives that tend to focus on morals and values, this theory bases the argument on that which has been approved as acceptable by the majority. In short, while deontology and utilitarianism elevate morals and consequences respectively and virtues elevate values, this approach emphasizes rights. Priority is given to the rights, not morality. Anybody tasked with making a decision using this theory perfectly understands that the people have surrendered some of their freedoms and instead tacitly or explicitly allowed the formulation of the rights. Popularized by John Rawls and seen as an alternative of the utilitarianism and deontology, this theory is often questioned for not clearly explaining the process of crafting the rights. Additionally, the process does not address the objections of the people who might be opposed to some of the agreed rights as it passed by the ma...
Friday, May 22, 2020
According to Jenny Strauss Clay, in their journal titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Generation of Monsters in Hesiod,Ã¢â¬ there is a Ã¢â¬Å"natural hierarchy of men and beastsÃ¢â¬ (Clay 112). As with any hierarchy, there are usually differences, or in this case Ã¢â¬Å"distinguishing features of the divine, the bestial, and the human,Ã¢â¬ which instinctively place some creatures above others (Clay 108). In the Greek and Roman myths that we read in class, this hierarchy is clearly shown through the relationship between the gods and monsters. As written in Theogony, all monsters derived from Gaia, however it is their appearances that set them apart from the gods. Clay defines being monstrous as being an anomaly. From birth, a monster Ã¢â¬Å"does not fit into usual classifications, orÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thus, there are new standards for all beings. Greek and Roman monsters are hybrid creatures that Ã¢â¬Å"unite normally disparate elements,Ã¢â¬ like for example, the human and the bestial (Clay 106). It is their distinctive qualities that make them discriminated against. Sometimes, they involve Ã¢â¬Å"a multiplication of human or animal featuresÃ¢â¬ or they Ã¢â¬Å"violate fundamental categories, for instance, mortal/immortal, young/old, and male/femaleÃ¢â¬ (Clay 106). One example of this in the Aeneid is Cerberus. Once Aeneas and the Sibyl cross the river to get into the underworld, they see this multi-headed dog that guarding the gates. As revealed in Theogony, Cerberus is also the offspring of two monsters, Echidna and Typhon (Hesiod, Theogony, 310-315). Like Clay wrote, the gods would view those who had multiples of the same feature as monsterous. Thus, it makes sense how in the Aeneid, Cerberus is described as having Ã¢â¬Å"three throats,Ã¢â¬ an Ã¢â¬Å"enormous bulk, and serpents writh[ing] around his neckÃ¢â¬ (Virgil, Aeneid, p. 198, 6.480-482). Because of this, the gods are fine with using him as a guard. They are taking advantage of him so that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to deal with people trying to sneak out of the underworld. This is all because, as a monster, their Ã¢â¬Å"excessive powerÃ¢â¬ or distinguishing features Ã¢â¬Å"inspires fear, especially in those who ruleÃ¢â¬ . So Zeus is left Ã¢â¬Å"neutralizeÃ¢â¬ the threat and then Ã¢â¬Å"incorporate them into his new orderÃ¢â¬ (ClayShow MoreRelatedMonster EnergyÃ¢â¬â¢s Pest Analysis: Essay1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCorporation (Now Monster Beverage Corporation) is a US based company located in Corona, California. They have been in the market from the 1930s in the manufacturing of natural sodas and from the early 20th century into caffeinated beverages. They have taken on Red Bull recently to become the top leader in the market of energy drinks. This can be taken as an advantage and a threat to the company as they have bee n majorly depending on their Monster Energy drink product solely for revenue generation despiteRead MoreThe Monster s Body Is A Culture Body Essay1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesToday we have a big number of different versions of movies Ã¢â¬Å"GodzillaÃ¢â¬ . Godzilla is the favorite monster in Japan and which is embodiment of the culture desire of the powerful and strong country. The monster presents as the most famous pop culture icon of Japan whose role is to solve politico-social conflict. The early 50Ã¢â¬â¢s were extremely difficult time in the World history. At this time, after WOW II, in the world occurs worsening of the politico-social conflict between the major world powers. JapanRead MoreHuman Conscience And Destiny In Oedipus The King By Sophocles1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswings, sharp claws, the body of a lion and mysteriously dangerous speech penetrates the whole tragedy as an incorporation of destiny and unknown future. The following research represents a critical analys is of the SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ tragedy, dealing with various issues raised in it. It gives a detailed analysis of different problems evoking throughout the tragedy on the basis of the existing research conducted by profound contemporary researchers. Human Conscience and Destiny The problem of human DestinyRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesquickly set her apart from the other writers of her generation and allowed quickly for her work to become internationally celebrated. However, in a way Mary Shelley did adhere to the writing structures of the celebrated authors around her time period. She did this by empowering her main character, Victor Frankenstein, with the enlightenment values of individualism and self exploration; only in a very pessimistic and gloomy way. Through careful analysis of quotes from Mary Shelley s frankenstein fromRead MoreWhy Does Frankenstein Begin and End with Waltons Letters?1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Victor Frankenstein is a scientist whose ambition will be fatal. His story is central to Mary Shelley s Frankenstein. Nevertheless, Shelley gave a frame to Victor s tale as Frankenstein begins and ends with Captain Walton s letters. In this analysis, I will show that Shelley did not insert the letters by chance, but that they add a deeper dimension to the novel. Walton s letters play an important role for the reader may find many foreshadowed themes. As the novel progresses, the readerRead MoreMonster Beverage, Stock Symbol Mnst Essay1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMonster Beverage, stock symbol MNST, is a corporation who does most of their distributions through their subsidiaries. Their products are energy drinks. They are included in the Consumer Goods industry and Forbes reports that the company currently has 2,214 employees. A recent victory Monster Beverage has made is their partnership with Coca-Cola. The partnership was just completed at the end of 2015. Coke transferred their alternative drinks (energy drinks) to Monster Beverage, and Monster transferredRead MoreThe Feminist Critical Lens Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMatthew Atchison Mr. Sutton English 2 H 3/10/16 Victor FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Downfall; An Analysis through the Feminist Critical Lens In the 18th century, a woman by the name of Mary Wollstonecraft became one of the first great proponents of feminism, a movement that promoted the rights and abilities of women. During the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, feminism was still on the rise. The movement spawned a generation of great women, and thus, many interesting sayings. In Frankenstein, a book written by Mary ShelleyRead MoreA World Of True Blood And Twilight1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn a world of True Blood and Twilight it is easily seen by the current young adult generation as to how sexualization of vampires is inevitable and as a result is easily accepted. However according to Christopher Craft and his work on Ã¢â¬Å"Gender and InversionÃ¢â¬ , that conventional vampiric sexualization is more complex than perceived. CraftÃ¢â¬â¢s work outlines many of Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s theses throughout his novel Dracula. He states how there is a gender inversion within StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s vampire; questioning conventionalR ead MoreThe Modern Urban Culture Consumption Of Soft Drinks1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the modern urban culture consumption of soft drinks particularly among younger generation has become very popular. Soft drinks in various flavors and tastes are widely patronized by urbane population at various occasions like dinner parties, marriages, social get together, birthday calibration etc. children of all ages and groups are especially attracted by the mere mention of the word soft drinks. With the growing popularity of soft drinks, the technology of its production, preservation, transportationRead MoreAmong New American Ghost Cinema, one can witness the re-emergence of an interesting sub-genre: the1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageson humankindÃ¢â¬â¢s senses of truth and what our society represses or oppresses. Both HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Public SphereÃ¢â¬ and WoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to the American Horror FilmÃ¢â¬ touch on the inner workings of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. With these essays and an analysis of these films, I will be able to propose theories working towards a mode of critical engagement with the success of The Blair Witch Project. It is then that we will connect it to the wider social and political jungle surrounding America as it stood
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The fresh fruit juice customers are more conscious about their health and wellness. In addition, most customers do not price-sensitive when it comes to products touching their wellness. Finally, fresh fruit customers take at least 250ml of fresh fruit juice when they visit a juice store. Residents with families or dependants purchase at least 500ml of fresh juice per serving. The primary customers for BestJuice Limited are people above the age of thirty years who comprise of about 53 percent of Halifax population. This is because the chosen population segment is health-conscious and will not hesitate to purchase products that will boost their health and retard premature aging. Fresh fruit market segment is a growing segment attracting new entrants annually. Higher operating profits, increasing market, and low initial capital requirements are some of the factors that have made the segment attractive to venture. Direct Competitors of BestJuice Limited includes Smoothies and Juice bar, Gin and Juice, Frootique, Booster Juice Bar, Juice eh! and Orange Julius. Most of the above companies are national players and have developed over time. They have established their own customer base from many years in operation. We will write a custom essay sample on Direct Competitors of BestJuice Limited or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now However, in the food court mall where BestJuice Limited intends to establish its business, there are no direct competitors. The first competitor is found two hundred meters away from the mall. Indirect competitors are supermarkets, departmental stores, convenience stores, and food and beverage stores selling similar products. Though they are numerous in Canada, they do not pose direct competition because they largely sell flavored juices. After working in the food industry for over two years, the Assem discovered that most people are turning to organic foods especially fruits and fresh fruit juices due to health and wellness concerns. Most customers who visited the restaurant in Halifax where BestJuice Limited owner worked were always disappointed when they could not find fresh fruit juices.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
I have been asked to suggest different methods that can reduce discrimination and prejudice in the workplace. Is it possible to make everyone get along and ignore their differences? According to the growing research on discrimination and prejudice, these are learned behaviors that with practice can be unlearned, and ultimately eliminated (Baron Branscombe, 2012, p. 195). Discrimination is defined as the negative treatment of different groups: Prejudice, on the other hand is viewed as the negative emotions or attitudes associated with discrimination (Ramasubramanian, 2010). These two terms go hand in hand because they both can lead to racism; however, that is not suggesting that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the twoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite that Hispanics are growing in numbers in the United States, there is also more tension between racial and ethnic groups because they are all left to compete against the other (Weaver, 2011, p. 2723). Indeed, researc h confirms that competition allows for prejudice feelings to occur between the in-groups and the out-groups (Bobo Fox, 2003; Dixon et al., 2010). Many researchers agree that one seems to be closer or more cohesive to their own group and associate a sense of pride for each other; on the other hand, they tend to fear the out-group because they are seen as the competitors, the enemies, and the traitors (Ramasubramanian, 2010; Baron Branscombe, 2012; Hirsh Lyons, 2010). Clearly this creates a disconnection between groups, which make them feel a sense of threat for one another, due to this, prejudice feelings and differences become more evident. One of the most common theories that explain why prejudice persists today, as it relates to the workplace, is called realistic conflict theory (Baron Branscombe, 2012). This psychological theory states that prejudice is more frequent when competition arises in a situation where there are limited resources that only one group can claim (Bobo, 1983). However, being that discrimination is a learned behavior, one can conclude that it can be socially influenced; therefore, behavior can be altered by focusing on what is causing the individual to feel inferior or threaten (Bobo Fox, 2003). With that beingShow MoreRelatedEliminating Discrimination In The Workplace Essay examples1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconsultant I have been asked to suggest different methods that can possibly reduce discrimination and prejudice in the workplace. Is it possible however to make everyone get along and ignore their differences? According to the growing research on discrimination and prejudice, these are learned behaviors that with practice can be unlearned, and ultimately eliminated (Baron Branscombe, 2012, p. 195). Discrimination is defined as the negative treatment of different groups: Prejudice, on the other handRead MoreEmployment Discrimination Can Wear Many Faces In The Workplace.1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEmployment discrimination can wear many faces in the workplace. Three common workplace discriminations are in the categories of age, weight, and sexual orientation. Only age discrimination has a specific law named after it. The law is called the Age Discrimination Act (ADA). Wei ght discrimination is linked with the Americans with Disabilities Act in order to be enforced. Sexual orientation (Gender identity) is linked with the Civil Rights Act of 1964. There is a new regulation called the LGBT employmentRead MoreEssay on Occupational Segregation994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages from all accounts, there has been some form of inequality between genders in society. This has become especially true in the workplace and for some people occupational segregation may be to blame. Occupational segregation is the grouping of similar jobs at similar workplaces. Not to be confused with job segregation which looks at specific jobs within specific workplaces, occupational segregation focuses on the occupation as a whole. An example of an occupation would be middle school teacher. AnRead More Employment Laws and Regulation Essay1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmassively from dynamic, healthy, motivated, and productive employees. It therefore goes without saying that managers, just li ke employees, should promote these laws and thus ensures the organization conforms to them. Generally these laws govern the workplace actions of employers and employees. It ensures a fruitful and legally conducive environment and relationship exists between these two parties, and within employees themselves. Violating them cannot only put the organization effectiveness on jeopardyRead MoreEarning Differences by Gender1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe pay gap persists because: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Men are more likely to pursue college majors and advanced degrees in fields that lead to higher-paying careers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Women are getting graduate degrees, but not necessarily in fields that give the best salaries. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discrimination remains a factor and it is difficult to document and measure. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Women on average are working fewer hours than men, often to care for children or other family members. The wage gap narrowed steadily through the 1980s and 1990s but the convergenceRead More Looks, Beauty, Appearance Discrimination in Employment Essay1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLooks, Beauty, Appearance Discrimination in Employment Employment discrimination legislation has evolved to include race, disabilities, sexual harassment of either gender, and age. In lieu of this evolution and an increasing trend toward equality for all individuals in the workplace, the time has come for the protective reach of employment discrimination law to cover ugliness. While the proposal may cause titters at first, evidence exists that discrimination based on looks (or physicalRead MoreBusiness Case And Moral Case Justification For Diversity Management1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand beliefs, and etcetera, when managed well, can be an asset to the organisation. More often than not, there will be some sort of discrimination in the workplace, especially with a very diverse workforce. Therefore, with proper training and benefits to ensure the development of these employees, and legislation and policy to ensure equality and reduce discrimination within the workforce, it can drive competitive advantage and organisational profit. When looking at diversity in the workforce, theRead MoreJoining1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthis intercultural communication benefits the residents of Australia in many ways, from learning about different cultures and religions to accepting different ethnic beliefs, thus taking a significant step towards reducing and hopefully eventually eliminating racism altogether. Diversity is the state of being different. It is individuals and groups whose backgrounds, experiences, styles, values, etc vary. There are many ways people can differ from one another, but for this assignment we will writeRead MoreDiscrimination In The Workplace1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages While the world has unanimously advanced and is more accepting of change, the workplace continues to be a place of discrimination, prejudice and inequality. Discrimination is broadly defined to Ã¢â¬Ëdistinguish unfavourablyÃ¢â¬â¢, isolate; and is context based (Pagura, 2012). Abrahams (1991) described the workplace as an Ã¢â¬Ëinhospitable placeÃ¢â¬â¢ where gender disparity and wage gaps persist (Stamarski Son Hing, 2015). Among other states and countries, the Australian government actively implements and passesRead MoreEssay on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women1969 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe diversity in the workplace is one of the most significant discussions in the global business and economy. The diversity in the workplace can include the different races, backgrounds, beliefs, personality, gender.....etc. The discrimination against the women in the workplace is a serious issue which has influenced the economy and the human resources in any country or company. Au stralia has a good economy and large workplace. The Australian experience in developing vital strategy and policy to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Great ideas turn into action by first creating a plan of action. There are many decision-making methods than can be used. The SDLC is an excellent way to implement a plan and help make decisions. Brainstorming and using other decision-making tools can also help an idea to grow into action. There are a lot of ways to end an excellent plan. Poor decision making skills and mismanagement can destroy any hopes of a plan reaching its goal. This was true in our scenario. The problem with the employees being in the wrong training class is a good example of a great idea being halted. The remarkable idea to have the business officers decide which classes their employees needed did not work because they were not aware of what the classes offered. NorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2)We should also find out who needs what without the assumption of what you think they need. 3)Also needed is relevant data gathering specific to the questions and project needs. 4)Making sure the training courses cont ain information that is relevant to workers needs. 5)Revising evaluation questions and plans as project conditions change. As time goes on, make sure any important changes that arise are updated in the training materials. Knowing what resources are available/ needed for evaluation. Understanding the existing capacity of the implementation. Why is the new system being introduced and what can be done in the new system? Realizing the capabilities and limitations of existing technologies. Knowing that the software (SAP) is limited in what it will do based on user input. The process of undergoing an evaluation can, for example, build shared meaning and understanding, support and enhance the program (by building evaluation-based data collection and analysis into the program design); and/or support human and organizational development by training staff in new skills. A well thought-out evaluation will provide benefits no matter what the results are. By the simple virtue of being well thought- out, the evaluation will provide program staff an opportunity to learn, and to teach. Through the implementation of the SAP, it is assumed that overall productivity will increase. Adequate job training has become essential for production. With ever changingShow MoreRelatedImplementation Of A Systems Development Lifecycle1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction A systems development lifecycle (SDLC) is a term used to describe the process of planning, designing, testing and deployment of information system (Roebuck, 2012). A SDLC has three essential goals: to ensure the delivery of high quality systems, ensure strong management control throughout the project and maximize the output of systems staff (Massey Satao, 2012). I. Description A SDLC contains several specifications required to meet its objectives for instance the capacity to supportRead MoreHealthcare Management Systems: Features Capabilities and Operational Benefits1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Table of Contents 1- Features, capabilities, and operational benefits 2 Patient care applications 2 Management and enterprise system 2 E-Health applications 2 Strategic decision support applications 3 2- Need of Strategic plan for IM/IT in healthcare industry 3 Rationale 4 3- Systems development life-cycle in healthcare industry 4 4- Key elements for secure access to health care and patient information 5 5- Application of systems theory in healthcare governance of IT/IM 6 ReferencesRead MoreThe Boehm- Waterfall Software Engineering Methodology Essay948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow does this relate to the SDLC? SDLC stands for the systems development life cycle. It is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. There are five steps to the SDLC, which are planning, analyze, design, implementation, and maintenance. The Boehm- Waterfall Software engineering methodology relates to SDLC because it contains stagesRead MoreThe Theory Development Life Cycle Approach Essay1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesautomobiles and motorcycles. This means that its contemporary information system is highly-organized for collection, organization, storage, exchange, and communication of useful information. This efficient system helps support its business operations, and decision-making. To facilitate the flow and take advantage of modern information system, a number of development approaches and methodologies have been introduced. The waterfall approach, i terative approach, and agile approach are some examples of them. Read MoreThe Boehm- Waterfall Software Engineering Methodology1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesunderstanding of the Boehm- Waterfall Software engineering methodology. How does this relate to the SDLC? SDLC stands for the systems development life cycle. It is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. There are five steps to the SDLC, which are planning, analyze, design, implementation, and maintenance. The Boehm- Waterfall SoftwareRead MoreAgile Project Management : Agile And Waterfall Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestogether to get tasks done. Whether you get someone from the Business side, the programming side, the Cyber Security side, or even HR, these people all work together sometimes to work on a task and finish the task. Agile is one of the most prominent method of using and as well as building a design for a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. But to make it a little more complicated, there a few different subsets within Agile Ã¢â¬â Scrum and Waterfall. What is Agile? What is Agile Project Management? Agile is Ã¢â¬Å"not a methodologyRead MoreBest Practices and the Sdlc1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesclear blueprint for proper IT direction of an organization. By using a System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) model and sound best practice methods, an IT manager can define that blueprint and make the best possible IT decisions. According to http://www.bigpedia.comthe SDLC relates to models or methodologies that people use to develop systems, generally computer systems. A number of SDLC models have been created: waterfall, fountain, spiral, build and fix, and rapid prototyping. There is notRead MoreSystem Development Life Cycle ( Sdlc ) Methodologies1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBusinesses rely heavily on their information systems for decision making, an essential component of organization management. Information systems serves several purposes in a business, ranging from transactions and assisting leadership with difficult strategy formulation. Advances in computer-based information technology in recent years have led to a widely variety of systems that managers are now using to make and implement decisions (Alter, 1976). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses, systems development isRead MoreEa Enables Essay1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Enterprise Architecture Enables SDLC The enterprise architecture complements the phases of system development life cycle. The SDLC consists of serious of steps that system developers are supposed to follow when developing systems in a firm or organization.Ã The EA complements and facilitates the phases of SDLC by ensuring organizations follow the steps of SDLC well when implementing systems.Ã Ã The first step of SDLC is initiation. During the stage, the organizations identifyRead MoreSoftware Design : Software Development Life Cycle886 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesphase is the process that transforms the user requirements into some suitable form, helping the programmer in software implementation and coding. Software design is the first step that moves the concentration from problem domain to solution domain in SDLC (Software development Life Cycle). Software design yields three levels of results that are Architectural Design, High-level design, and detailed design. Firstly, the architectural design is the highe st abstract version of the system identifying the
1.0 Introduction Cyber-attacks have become a significant problem for information systems (IS) worldwide. When referring to information systems, the term cyber-attack is used for denoting a malicious action that aims to result to specific benefit, usually financial, and which is developed through online routes as available in the Internet (Vacca, 2009). We will write a custom essay sample on Does the government do enough to punish cyber-attacks criminals? or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the UK, the expansion of cyber-crime has been quite rapid the last few years leading to severe financial losses for the victims, individuals and businesses (Cabinet Office, 2011). The graph in Figure 1 shows the cost of the various types of cyber Ã¢â¬â crime to the UK economy. This paper explores the effectiveness of measures taken by the UK government in regard to the punishment of cyber-crime, aiming to show whether the current initiatives for the UK government for punishing the cyber-crime are sufficient or not. The paper also explains the key characteristics and the value of information systems (IS) security so that the potential of the UK government to secure safety from cyber-crimes is evaluated. I will argue that the UK government does not enough to punish cyber-attacks and criminals. Moreover, the introduction by the government of stricter punishment for cyber-attacks has not resulted to the limitation of this type of crime, as explained below. Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â Cost of different types of cyber Ã¢â¬â crime to the UK economy (Cabinet Office, 2011, p.2) 2.0 Security of IS Ã¢â¬â characteristics and importance Security, as a term, can be related to different fields. In the context of information technology, the term security is used for describing Ã¢â¬Ëa power systemÃ¢â¬â¢s degree of risk in its ability to survive imminent disturbances without interruption of customer serviceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cuzzocrea et al., 2013, p.244). As for the term Ã¢â¬ËIT securityÃ¢â¬â¢, this term refers to three values/ characteristics of an IT system, such as: Ã¢â¬Ëconfidentiality, integrity and availabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Katsikas, 2016, p.28). According to Mehdi (2014), the term IS security denotes Ã¢â¬Ëthe protection of IS against unauthorized accessÃ¢â¬â¢ (p.4310). It is explained that a secure IS can ensure that its data will not be modified or lost (Mehdi, 2014). Also, such system is able to detect early any security threat activating appropriate protection mechanisms (Merkow, 2010). At organizational level, IS security is ensured by using an IS security policy, i.e. a set of rules referring to the securit y standards that would apply in all IS of the organisation involved (Kim and Solomon, 2016). However, the demands of such policy can be many, a fact which is justified if considering the several types of IS threats (Cabinet Office, 2011; Figure 1). Organisations often need to hire an Information System Security Officer (ISSO) for ensuring IS security (Kovachich, 2016). 3.0 The punishment of cyber-attacks and criminals Ã¢â¬â government initiatives and effects 3.1 Laws and policies focusing on IS security In the UK, the first law addressing cyber Ã¢â¬â crimes appeared in 1990 and aimed to cover the gaps of existing legislation in regard to the protection of IT systems from cyber-attacks (Emm, 2009). This was the 1990 Computer Misuse Act. The introduction in the UK of a legislative text focusing on cyber-attacks has been highly related to a cyber-attack incident: the unauthorized access, by two cyber-attackers, to BTÃ¢â¬â¢s Prestel service in 1984 (Emm, 2009). When dealing with the above case, the court used the 1981 Forgery and Counterfeiting Act, due to the lack of a legislative text focusing on computer-related crimes (Emm, 2009). In May of 2015, the Serious Crime Act 2015 came into action (Eversheds-Sutherland, 2015). The articles 41 up to 44 of the above law introduced stricter punishment for cyber-crimes. More specifically, in the context of the 1990 Computer Misuse Act the imprisonment for serious cyber-crimes could not exceed the 10 years. With the 2015 Act, the imprisonme nt for cyber-crimes has been significantly increased, reaching the 14 years and even, the life sentence in cases of cyber-crimes threatening national security (Eversheds-Sutherland, 2015). This, stricter, punishment for cyber-crimes could discourage cyber-criminals but only if the enforcement of the law was appropriately supported, so that all cases of cyber-crimes are brought before the courts (White, 2016). The National Cyber Security Strategy (CSS) of 2011 has been an effort of the British government to control cyber-crime (Shefford, 2015). The Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a national team that was established in 2014 for helping towards the achievement of the objectives of CSS (Cabinet Office, 2014, p.13). The CERT team provides to organisations in the private and the public sector critical information for the protection from cyber-attacks (Cabinet Office, 2014). Additionally, in the context of CSS, educational initiatives focusing on cyber security are developed by institutions across the UK; these initiatives are funded by the government and aim to achieve two targets: First, to increase the awareness of the public in regard to cyber security. Second, to help individuals to acquire skills which are necessary for supporting cyber security and for facing cyber-attacks (Cabinet Office, 2014; Figure 2). The Cyber Security Challenge (CSC) is a programme developed by the UK g overnment for helping young people to understand the risks from using their cyber skills in the wrong way; the programme includes competitions and other schemes that can motivate young people to use their cyber skills in a proactive way and not for the commitment of cyber Ã¢â¬â crimes (National Crime Agency, 2017). Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â Initiatives/ measures of the National CSS for facing cyber-crime (Cabinet Office, 2014, p.22) 3.2 Cyber-attack incidents in governmental and non-governmental organisations The number of cyber-attacks against governmental and non-governmental organisations in the UK is continuously increased (White, 2016). From January to October of 2016, 75 cyber-attacks have been reported against banks in the UK, while in 2014 these attacks were just five (White, 2016). In 2013, three individuals in Britain were convicted to jail, from 6 months up to 22 months, for unauthorised access of sensitive private data stored in Ã¢â¬ËPayPal, Visa and MastercardÃ¢â¬â¢ (McTague, 2014). The above punishment was considered as too soft compared to the seriousness of the crime. In 2014, the government decided to initiate the modification of existing punishment for cyber-crimes, so that future perpetrators are discouraged from committing a cyber-crime (McTague, 2014). Pultarova (2016) argued that banks in the UK face cyber-attacks quite regularly but they avoid reporting the specific incidents trying to protect their market image. In November of 2016, Chancellor P. Hammond noted that critical infrastructure units of the UK, such as airports and gas facilities, are threatened by Ã¢â¬Ëcyber-attacking techniques developed by other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ (BBC News, 2016). It was noted that the protection from such attacks would be a priority for the UK in order for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s security, at national level, to be ensured (BBC News, 2016). In 2011 the general police officer in the e-crime department of Scotland-Yard argued that the punishment of cyber Ã¢â¬â crimes in the UK is too soft if considering the actual damage that these crimes cause (BBC News, 2011). It was explained that the annual damage on the UK economy from cyber-crimes reaches the ?27bn (BBC News, 2011). In 2016, the National Crime Agency of the UK published a report for showing the status of cyber-crimes, in terms of occurrence/ rate of appearance. According to the above report, the cyber Ã¢â¬â crime represents a major part of criminal activity in the UK, reaching the 36% among all crim es developed in the UK. At the same time, the crimes related to computer misuse reached the 17% among the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s total crimes (National Crime Agency, 2016). The above figures and facts indicate the inability of the UK government to control cyber-crime. The introduction in 2015 of stricter punishment for cyber-crimes has been an important initiative by the UK government for controlling cyber-crime. However, this initiative should be combined with other measures, at national and at community level. In a speech in mid-February of 2017, Chancellor P. Hammond noted that in the previous three months a total of 188 severe cyber-attacks had been reported; these attacks aimed to cause severe damage to governmental services, infrastructure and businesses (Cole, 2017). A similar issue has been raised by Lord West of Spithead who noted in 2010 that in 2009 the UK had to face Ã¢â¬Ë300 significant attacksÃ¢â¬â¢ on the IS of the government (Doward, 2010). According to Lord West, this problem had become quite serious, denoting that the UK had been targeted by cyber criminals worldwide, as these attacks seemed to be supported by foreign governments, as Lord West noted (Doward, 2010). The above arguments verify the existence of gaps in the existing national framework for the protection from cyber-attacks, as this framework constitutes the national legislation and national policy for the control of cyber Ã¢â¬â crime. The facts presented above further verify the inability of the UKÃ¢â¬â ¢s policy to reduce the occurrence of cyber-crime. Guitton (2012) developed an experiment, using data related to cyber-attacks that occurred between 2003 and 2010 in businesses located in three European countries: Germany, UK and France. It was revealed that the relationship between attribution and deterrence is strong only in cases of individuals of individuals who are aware of the existing legislation for cyber-crime and who can realise the actual effects of their actions. These individuals represented the 1/3 of the cases reviewed by Guitton (2012). In opposition, it was found that most individuals involved in cyber-crimes are not fully aware of the relevant legislation and they tend to ignore the effects of their actions. For these individuals, the control theory which emphasises on the power of attribution, as held by the state, to ensure deterrence is not applied, as Guitton (2012) argued. In the context of the above study, the potential of the British government to control cyber-crime is limited. This fact, even it would be ac cepted, could not affect the view on the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to confront cyber-crime. The update of the terms of punishment of cyber-crimes just in 2015 and the lack of effective control mechanisms for identifying and reporting cyber Ã¢â¬â attacks verify the failure of the government to ensure the punishment of cyber-attacks and criminals. 4.0 Conclusion and Recommendations It is concluded that the UK government does not make enough to punish cyber-attacks and criminals. First, a significant delay has been identified in the introduction of appropriate/ fair penalties. Indeed, the introduction of strict punishment for cyber-crimes took place just in 2015, as explained above. The facts and views presented in this paper lead to the assumption that for many years, the government has avoided confronting cyber-attacks as a criminal activity, a fact that led to the radical increase of cyber-attacks against IS systems in governmental services and in financial institutions. At the same time, IS security has several aspects, meaning that eliminating cyber Ã¢â¬â crime is rather impossible. The soft punishment framework for cyber-crimes, as used in the past, has led to the severe deterioration of the problem across the UK. The increase of effectiveness of current legislation, as from May 2015, on cyber-attacks could be achieved through certain practices, such a s: First, events and seminars would be organized at community level for informing individuals on the characteristics of cyber-attacks and the available measures for protection; these seminars would also provide guidelines to entrepreneurs in regard to the value of IS security policy, as part of business strategy. Second, incentives would be provided to entrepreneurs for pursuing the certification of their business according to the information security management standards, such as the ISO/IEC 27000 standards. Third, an independent authority would be established for controlling the performance of governmental and non-governmental organisations in regard to IS safety. Finally, the investment on IS security in governmental and non-governmental organisations would be increased. Security frameworks, such as the Ã¢â¬ËIntrusion Detection SystemÃ¢â¬â¢ (IDS), could be employed in these organisations for ensuring IS security in IS systems that manage and store high volume of private data (Stair and Reynolds, 2015, p.460). 5.0 Personal reflections This project has been related to a critical issue: the findings in regard to the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s subject have been contradictory. More specifically, the UK government has tried to confront cyber-attacks through legislation and relevant policies but the punishment for these crimes has been characterised as soft, at least up to 2015, while the number of cyber-attacks in the UK is continuously increased. Under these terms, I had to face a dilemma: how should the performance of the UK government in facing cyber-crime would be evaluatedBy referring to the initiatives taken or by emphasising on the actual results of these initiativesReflection has helped me to face the above problem. Indeed, reflection can help the researcher to have Ã¢â¬Ëan objective sense of thingsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gillett et al., 2013, 85). Moreover, using reflection I tried to estimate the balance between the positive and negative aspects of governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to punish cyber-crime and to understand which aspect of t he governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy against cyber-crime is more related to the research question: this paper aims to explain whether the government has done enough on the punishment of cyber-crime. Through reflection, I understood that the occurrence of cyber-attacks in the UK should be preferred as the criterion for answering the research question. Ventola and Mauranen (1996) explained that reflection can help the researcher to identify the research findings that are closer to the research question, a fact that allows the researcher to use the right material for answering the research question. Additionally, I used reflection during the development of the study for managing time and for tracking research gaps, which have been covered after the completion of the project. The above tasks have been supported by a research diary (Day, 2013), in the form of notes, where daily progress in regard to research and writing was reported. Thus, the use of reflection while developing this project h elped me to control risks, in regard to the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s structure and content, and to manage time more effectively, covering all aspects of the research question. 6.0 References BBC News (2016) UK must retaliate against cyber-attacks says chancellor. Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-37821867 [Accessed 15 March 2017]. BBC News (2011) Cyber criminals Ã¢â¬Ëshould get tough sentencesÃ¢â¬â¢ say police. Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-15680466 [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Cabinet Office (2011) The cost of cabinet crime. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/60943/the-cost-of-cyber-crime-full-report.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Cabinet Office (2014) The UK Cyber Security Strategy. Report on Progress and Forward Plans. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/386093/The_UK_Cyber_Security_Strategy_Report_on_Progress_and_Forward_Plans_-_De___.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Cole, H. (2017) UK Government and businesses are hit by two Ã¢â¬ËseriousÃ¢â¬â¢ cyber-attacks a day. The Sun. Available from: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2857508/uk-government-and-businesses-are-hit-by-two-serious-cyber-attacks-a-day/ [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Cuzzocrea, A., Kittl, C., Simos, D., Weippl, E. and Xu, L. (2013) Availability, Reliability, and Security in Information Systems and HCI: IFIP WG 8.4, 8.9, TC 5 International Cross-Domain Conference, CD-ARES 2013, Regensburg, Germany, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings. New York: Springer. Day, T. (2013) Success in Academic Writing. Oxford: Palgrave Macmillan Doward, J. (2010) Britain fends off flood of foreign cyber-attacks. The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2010/mar/07/britain-fends-off-cyber-attacks [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Emm, D. (2009) Cybercrime and the law: a review of UK computer crime legislation. SecureList. Available from: https://securelist.com/analysis/publications/36253/cybercrime-and-the-law-a-review-of-uk-computer-crime-legislation/ [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Eversheds-Sutherland (2015) Will the Serious Crime Act 2015 toughen the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s cybercrime regimeAvailable from: http://www.eversheds-sutherland.com/global/en/what/articles/index.page?ArticleID=en/tmt/Serious_Crime_Act_2015_May2015 [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Gillett, A., Hammond, A. and Martala, M. (2013) Inside Track to Successful Academic Writing. Essex: Pearson Education. Guitton, C. (2012) Criminals and Cyber Attacks: The Missing Link between Attribution and Deterrence. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 6(2), pp.1030-1043. Katsikas, S. (2016) Information Systems Security: Facing the information society of the 21st century. New York: Springer. Kim, D. and Solomon, M. (2016) Fundamentals of Information Systems Security. Sudbury: Jones Bartlett Publishers. Kovachich, G. (2016) The Information Systems Security OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide: Establishing and Managing a Cyber Security Program. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. McTague, T. (2014) Computer hackers face life in prison under new Government crackdown on cyber terrorism. Mail Online. Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2649452/Computer-hackers-face-life-prison-new-Government-crackdown-cyber-terrorism.html [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Mehdi, K. (2014) Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology. Hershey: IGI Global. Merkow, M. (2010) Security Policies and Implementation Issues. Sudbury: Jones Bartlett Publishers. National Crime Agency (2017) Cyber Ã¢â¬â crime: preventing young people from being involved. Available from: http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/crime-threats/cyber-crime/cyber-crime-preventing-young-people-from-getting-involved [Accessed 15 March 2017]. National Crime Agency (2016) Cyber Ã¢â¬â Crime Assessment 2016. Available from: http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/709-cyber-crime-assessment-2016/file [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Pultarova, T. (2016) UK banks under constant cyber-attack but donÃ¢â¬â¢t report incidents. Engineering Technology. Available from: https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2016/10/uk-banks-under-constant-cyber-attack-but-dont-report-incidents/ [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Shefford, M. (2015) What is the UK government doing about cybersecurityDatonomy. Available from: http://datonomy.eu/2015/04/01/what-is-the-uk-government-doing-about-cybersecurity/ [Accessed 15 March 2017]. Stair, R. and Reynolds, G. (2015) Fundamentals of Information Systems. 8th ed. Belmont: Cengage Learning. Vacca, J. (2009) Computer and Information Security Handbook. Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann. Ventola, E. and Mauranen, A. (1996) Academic Writing: Intercultural and textual issues. John Benjamins Publishing. White, L. (2016) British banks keep cyber-attacks under wraps to protect image. Reuters. Available from: http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-britain-banks-cyber-idUKKBN12E0NQ [Accessed 15 March 2017]. How to cite Does the government do enough to punish cyber-attacks criminals?, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about the Relationship Management on Project Performance. Answer: Introduction Project management is the guideline for the planning, initiation, control, execution, and closing of the work for any particular team for the achievement of the distinct objectives and goals and thus meeting the specific success criteria within a specific time period (Bredillet 2008). A project is the temporary attempt that is designed for the production of a unique service, product or result that has a definite start and ending point. The main challenge of the project management is to attain the objectives and goals within the provided constraints of the project (Burke 2013). The information of the project management is normally described in the documentation of the project that is being created at the starting of the process of development. The primary or the main constraints of a project are time, scope, budget and quality (Kerzner 2013). The secondary constraints of the project include the probable challenges or problems for the optimization of the allocation of the required inpu ts and the applying them for reaching the previously defined objectives. The object of the project management is for producing a completed project that complies with the objectives of the clients. Projects are executed by several organizations or businesses (Larson and Gray 2013). The management of the production of the projects is done by the discipline known as project management. The following report outlines a brief description about the six articles of project management by Christophe N. Bredillet. This report helps to understand the overall review of the six papers of project management by Christophe N. Bredillet. The report identifies the context of the project management research agenda and the different perspectives and the development of the research agenda literature. Comparison and Discussion of Six Papers in a series by Christophe N. Bredillet published in Project Management Journal Modern project management initiated as an subsidiary of operations research, with the adoption of techniques of optimization, developed in that field, however has subsequently widened so that at least the nine schools of thought in project management can be easily identified (Bredillet 2008). For supporting these particular developments, the project management research community requires to be a complete and recognized part of the academic community in management, so that academics in the subject can receive complete recognition for their work and the others are encouraged to track research in the specific related areas (Unger et al. 2012). Identification of different perspectives in this research agenda. There are nine different perspectives used in the research agenda. They are as follows: i) Optimization School: Modern project management has the roots in the field of the operations research of the 1940s and 1950s (Bredillet 2008). Optimization tools like the techniques of network scheduling that includes the critical path methods or CPM and program evaluation and review technique or PERT. Both of these reflect the genesis of the modern project management in the management science or in decision sciences field. ii) Modelling School: Modern project management thoughts progressed from the optimization of one or two objectives like cost and time to modelling of the entire system of project management and also the interactions among the components of the system. Governance School: The governance school had two bursts of activities (Bredillet 2008). The first burst of activity investigated about the relationship between the project management and contract management, whereas the second burst of activity looked at the procedures of governance on a particular project and in an organization that is project oriented. iv) Behaviour School: The behaviour school is apparently associated with the governance school and it takes as its premise that the project as a temporary organization is a social system, and it includes various areas that are focused on organizational behaviour or OB, communication, team building and leadership, and recently HRM or human resource management. v) Success School: The success school focuses on the success and failure of the project. Project success literature describes two main and important components of project success (Bredillet 2008). They are as follows: a) Project success factors: The elements of a project that can be influenced to increase the likelihood of success; the independent variables that make success more likely. b) Project success criteria: The measures by which the successful outcome of a project is judged is known as project success criteria. vi) Decision School: This particular school focuses on the factors that are relevant to the initiation, approval, and funding of projects, as well as factors relevant to project completion, termination, and conclusions about their success or failure (Bredillet 2008). This approach addresses economic, cultural, and political rules that cause investments in projects. Process School: This school became popular in the late 1980s, particularly in Europe (Bredillet 2008). The focus is on defining structured processes from the conceptual start of the project to achieving the end objectives. Contingency School: This school recognizes the difference between different types of projects and project organizations, considers the approaches most suitable for various project settings, and adapts project management processes to the needs of the project (Bredillet 2008). It stresses that every project is different, and so the management approach and leadership style adopted need to be adapted to the needs of the project. ix) Marketing School: This school focuses on the management of early phases of projects, identification of stakeholders and client needs, stakeholder management, formation of project organizations, interactions between clients and contractors, and internal marketing of the project to the organization (Bredillet 2008). Identification of the development of research agenda literature. The European Academy of Management or EURAM has had a significant track on the project management at all of the seven of its conferences that started from 2001 (Leach 2014). The practice of management, the academic community, and the world economy would be more enriched if project management were taken more seriously (Turner 2016). The first methodology is an unstructured and explorative search of the literature about all the alternatives to the classical view initiated this study (Todorovi? et al. 2015). It is discovered that the rethinking initiative in the United Kingdom early on in the initial process. The knowledge about the process in United Kingdom is sought out, as well as all the other ways to rethink about project management, in an explorative fashion that provided everybody with knowledge about the field and a foundation for further studies (Bredillet 2008). Through the initial process, it is found twenty six different articles, textbooks, and many more to be relevant, offering new alternative perspectives and new insights into the traditional approach (Walker 2015). Productive research normally address the factors affecting the first estimates of time and cost that is needed for the accomplishment of the project objectives to the level of the expected quality and the methods for handling deliberatel y optimistic estimates and improvement of such estimates. The Journal of Management does not have project management as one of its subject areas, although it does have technology management and the operations management (Unger et al. 2012). This particular unstructured literature review sometimes becomes a major problem, as it does not follow a proper and a structured pattern. The second methodology is the framework for the structured literature review (Nicholas and Steyn 2017). This is a more systematic and structured approach than the unstructured and explorative literature review. This type of literature review requires an explicit research method, which utilizes literature as the input. This does not utilize questionnaire, interviews or observations as the inputs (Martinelli and Milosevic 2016). There are certain steps for this particular approach. The steps for this method are as follows: i) Planning of the Review: The review is planned in the first step, as without this planning it is impossible to complete this methodology. ii) Clarification of the Scope: The second step of this systematic methodology is the clarification of the scope and the conceptualization of the topic. Searching, Evaluation and Selection of the Review: The literature review is searched, evaluated and selected in the third step of the systematic methodology (Larson and Gray 2013). iv) Analysis of the Selected Literature Review: Once the literature review is selected, the review is analyzed in the fourth step of the systematic methodology. v) Reporting and Disseminating: Finally, in the fifth or the last step of the systematic methodology, the reporting and the disseminating is done. This particular methodology is extremely useful and beneficial as it follows a proper and systematic structure or pattern for the literature review. There are eventually four typical phases that is utilized in the structured literature review (Bredillet 2008). Although it is possible to separate the phases analytically, the actual research process was iterative, however is still presented in a structured manner. The four phases of the structured literature review are as follows: This review scope is normally focused on the outcomes of the research study and the theories of the rethinking literature (Fleming and Koppelman 2016). The coverage of the systematic literature review was more comprehensive with the purpose of the inclusion of the most of the literature within the scope that is defined. It is possible to describe the literature of the project management as either classical project management or rethinking project management (Bredillet 2008). However, these two mentioned categories are not all inclusive and monolithic. The intention of the present review is for presenting the assessment of the alternative perspectives, which are emerged for the rethinking project management in the United Kingdom (Todorovi? et al. 2015). For this reason, the outset of the current study was the identification of key terms and topics from the United Kingdom study that could be utilized in further search processes (Nicholas and Steyn 2017). Initially, the major concepts are decided. The major concepts that are decided include rethinking project management and reinventing project management. In the second phase, the objective was the creation of the search process, which would encompass the literature from the initial search process in the phase one and capture the appropriate literature (Fleming and Koppelman 2016). Eventually, the proper and the significant search strings are identified through the initial study. This initial study was a highly iterative process. The first inclusion of the third phase is the core of the conceptualization of the rethinking project management is the United Kingdom based network initiative that is documented in the special problem on rethinking project management (Martinelli and Milosevic 2016). The second inclusion of the third phase is the next area that share several ideas with the initiative of United Kingdom like the broader conceptualization beyond simple execution and seeing the projects as temporary organizations that are embedded in wider environments and in the permanent organizations (Walker 2015). This area includes various pa pers taking temporary organizations as their outset. The third inclusion of the third phase is the projects as practice papers. These papers are included as they make on the actuality of the theme of the projects from the initiative of United Kingdom (Bredillet 2008). There is a high criticism between classical project management and rethinking project management thinking; although there are some writings that rethinking project management is better amongst the two. Phase 4: The analysis of the literature review is divided into two coding processes (Hill 2013). At first, the inductive analysis is being conducted with the objective of the identification of the overarching of the topics and then gradually categorizing each contribution within one of the associated categories. Six categories are identified in this process (Mir and Pinnington 2014). Although some contributions touched upon different categories, each contribution was only associated with the main category of the contribution. Critical analysis for research agenda The six papers by Christophe N. Bredillet demonstrate that project management is the developing field for academic study in management of substantial richness and diversity that can create a valuable contribution to the development of management knowledge, as well as being of considerable economic importance (Leach 2014). The six papers review the considerable development and trends of research in the subject that has been categorized into nine major schools of thought like optimization, modelling, governance, behaviour, success, decision, process, contingency, and marketing (Fleming and Koppelman 2016). According to Blomquist et al. (2010), research on any project is not only an immature field of research, however, it is also frail when it comes to understanding what occurs in projects. The authors have contributed to make project management research matter to the academic as well as to the practitioner by developing a project as practice approach, in alignment with the ongoing debate in social science research. According to Svejvig and Andersen (2015), the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management or RPM literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition take a critical look at the new world. Winter et al. (2006), tells about the story of a UK Government-funded research network called Rethinking Project Management, funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council between 2004 and 2006. Winter et al. (2006) state that an important development in project management in recent years has been the emergence of a new class of projects, in areas such as organisational change and IT, integrated business solutions, and long-term public service delivery. According to Packendorff (1995), the theoretical field of project management (PM) can be described as a set of models and techniques for the planning and control of complex undertakings. The six papers or articles have proved that project management helps in achieving the objectives and goals of an organization. The main limitation of these six papers includes the unstructured methodology of literature review. This particular type of methodology becomes a major problem for any specific organization or school as mentioned. Conclusion Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that project management is the method for attaining the goals or objectives of an organization. The theoretical field of project management or PM can be described as the set of techniques and models and for the planning and control of the complex undertakings. Projects have become a significant way for structuring work in most organizations and constituting one of the most significant organizational developments. First, rethinking project management or RPM is a diverse research area and a literature review can offer useful input to the conceptualization of the rethinking project management concept by establishing a more integrated view and setting boundaries. Second, an understanding of the development of rethinking project management over time makes it possible to elucidate rethinking project management with all its sub versions from a broader historical perspective, enabling us to see how the components of the current stock w ere added and basically how one can arrive at the current situation. The above report provides a brief description about the six articles by Christophe N. Bredillet. The report critically reviews the six articles. A brief description about the various methodologies is also provided in the report. References Blomquist, T., Hllgren, M., Nilsson, A. and Sderholm, A., 2010. Project?as?practice: In search of project management research that matters.Project Management Journal,41(1), pp.5-16. Bredillet, C.N., 2008. Exploring research in project management: Nine schools of project management research (part 4).Project Management Journal,39(1), pp.2-6. Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques.New Jersey, USA. Fleming, Q.W. and Koppelman, J.M., 2016, December. Earned value project management. Project Management Institute. Hill, G.M., 2013.The complete project management office handbook. CRC Press. Kerzner, H., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Kerzner, H., 2017.Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley Sons. Larson, E.W. and Gray, C., 2013.Project Management: The Managerial Process with MS Project. McGraw-Hill. Leach, L.P., 2014.Critical chain project management. Artech House. 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